Surprisingly, many bamboos are rather winter hardy and can be grown outside in colder areas. You might want to check into that, depending on the type of bamboo you have.
The American Bamboo Society offers a good bit of information about the hardier bamboos, as well as information about containing the more rambunctious forms of bamboo when it is grown directly in the ground.
If you must keep it indoors (or prefer to keep it indoors), do remember that it is basically a grass and will need ample moisture and nitrogen to keep it healthy. Health will also be influenced by the amount of light you can provide the plant.
Bamboos have differing light preferences depending on type, also. A reference to many of the more common bamboos grown as container plants can be found at www.bamboos.com/bonsai-instructions.html. Finally, if you do take the plant in and out with the seasons, be sure to acclimate it over a period of several weeks so that it can adjust to the new light level gradually.